A solemn Engagement of the Army
The poore wise-mans Admonition
The english Souldiers Standard
The baiting of the great Bull of Bashan
King James I and after him Charles I always needed more money than they got. In 1629 the parliament made a first attempt to limit the expenses and to get more rights. But Charles I sent the parliament home and continued for 11 years without. When in 1640 a rebellion of the scottish presbyterians started, Charles had no money to bring up an army. He had to call the parliament to get more taxes. But the parliament refused taxes and accused the chancellor Strafford and the archbishop of Canterbury as traitors. Charles had no choice than to drop his best servants. Both were executed.
Meanwhile peasants had taken land to cultivate it. The king suspected the parliament behind this and demanded the leaders. When the parliament didn't respond he sent troops to occupy it and to arrest the leaders he wanted. But they had already escaped and were hidden in London. Upon that the king went to the North of the country where he had more support. In 1642 the king declared war on the parliament.
Mutinies in the army started, but when the king, who had escaped to Scotland, came back in March 1648 with a new army, this time with the help of scottish presbyterians, Levellers and Independents fought together against their common enemy. This second war ended in October 1648 with Cromwell entering Edinburgh. To complete the victory, Colonel Pride expelled 41 presbyterians from the parliament (Prides Purge). The power of the presbyterians was broken. A supreme court was instituted to judge the king, who was found guilty of treason against the people and executed on January 30, 1649.
Cromwell was probably convinced that the revolution could and should not go further. He did not approve the claims of the Levellers. Now the "Grandees", the higher officers of the army, and Cromwell didn't need the Levellers any more. He solved this problem with the war against the Irish people. In March 1649 the most important Levellers in London are arrested for treason by order of the Council of State: John Lilburne, William Walwyn, Richard Overton and Thomas Prince. Mutinies of the Levellers in the army are successful at Salisbury, Aylesbury and Banbury. They join their forces, but are surprised and defeated by Cromwell at Burford. This resistance removed, Cromwell could lead the army to Ireland where a cruel war began, which continued until 1653. Thus, the Levellers had lost their military support (and protection) in England. At the same time the economic situation in England improved. After the irish campaign the army was sent to Scotland where it defeated the troops of Charles II (the son of Charles I). Charles II himself escaped to France in 1654 where he lived at St Germain, with the money of Louis XIV.
Cromwell, who was declared Lord Protector of the English Republic on December 16, 1653, died in 1658.
|http://www.lilburnes.com||site for english civil war re-enactment|
|http://www.open2.net/civilwar/||Detailed background of the Civil War |
|http://www.tc.umn.edu/~jbshank/Hum_Lecture24.html ||It is full of good information|
|http://levellers.org||it is helpful for 80 students with the same project|
|http://www.levellers.org.uk||Details the annual Levellers Day celebrations in Burford|
The Dutch Rebellion